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In the second part of our question and answer posts we look at Rabies vaccination.

Q: I am planning to back pack around South East Asia for 2 months should I have the rabies vaccine?

A: Yes we would definitely recommend a course of rabies vaccine. Rabies is spread through a bite, scratch or a lick on broken skin from an infected animal. It is estimated that there are between 50000 and 60000 deaths from rabies worldwide each year. Over half these deaths occur in South East Asia and rabies is almost always fatal.

If you do not have pre-exposure rabies vaccine before you travel you would require a treatment called rabies immune globulin (RIG). This must be administered within 24hrs following a bite/lick/scratch from a potentially infected animal. Human RIG is manufactured from the blood of immunized volunteers. Receiving any blood product abroad is never recommended unless you can be certain it has been screened for blood borne diseases such as H.I.V.  RIG is not always available in many developing countries.

Having three doses of rabies vaccine pre-travel eliminates the need for R.I.G and primes your immune system so that treatment after exposure would be successful.

If you are travelling to a rabies endemic country for 4 weeks or more, or likely to be more than 24 hours away from good medical facilities and a reliable source of RIG, you should consider getting a course of rabies before you travel. The vaccine is given on days 0, 7 and 21 or 28.

To book an appointment at Sussex Travel Clinic call 01273 749100 or book ONLINE

Over the coming weeks I will be posting some common questions that we get asked at the Travel Clinic. This week’s post looks at vaccinations required for travel to Egypt.

Q: I am travelling to Egypt for a 2 week holiday, do I need any vaccinations or malaria tablets?

A: Egypt is becoming an increasingly popular destination for UK travellers. The year round climate makes it the perfect choice for those wanting to escape the UK weather for some guaranteed sunshine all year round. Many people who book a holiday to Egypt do not realise that any vaccinations are required.

The recommended vaccinations for travel to Egypt are Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio, Hepatitis A and Typhoid. Protection against food and water-borne diseases such as Polio, Hepatitis A and Typhoid are very important as you could become infected through eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Staying in a 5* hotel does not reduce your risk, as the people preparing your food may live in areas where sanitation is poor and could pass on these diseases whilst preparing your food.  

Malaria tablets are generally not required for Egypt, as malaria is not present in the popular tourist destinations. However, there will still be lots of mosquitoes around, so you should take a good DEET based insect repellent to apply on your skin and help you avoid bites. Book an appointment with your travel clinic, ideally at least 2 weeks before departure, to get your vaccinations and to get further travel health advice on food and water hygiene and mosquito bite avoidance.

Egypt is a high risk destination for traveller’s diarrhoea. Bimuno has been shown to reduce your risk of getting diarrhoea- Available to purchase in clinic.

 

To book an appointment at Sussex Travel Clinic call 01273 749100 or book ONLINE

This blog is for information purposes only. All content within Sussex Travel Clinic Blog is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. Sussex Travel Clinic is not responsible or liable for any diagnosis made by a user based on the content of this blog. 
Sussex Travel Clinic  is not liable for the contents of any external internet sites listed within this blog.

The rabies virus is spread through the bite or scratch of an infected warm –blooded animal, most commonly dogs, and is nearly always fatal.  The virus attacks the central nervous system, causing paralysis, encephalitis and coma.

The World Health Organisation estimate that, more than 3 billion people are at risk of contracting rabies in at least 85 countries worldwide, with the annual number of deaths worldwide caused by rabies is estimated to be between 50,000 and 60,000. [1].

In this weeks post we look at countries reporting rabies in 2011.

 

 Countries Reporting Rabies cases in 2011 (June – December)

 

Angola

Angola is reporting an increase in rabies in animals during 2011. 405 people have been bitten by potentially rabid animals with 12 deaths since the beginning of the year.

Australia

A women from Brisbane in Queensland, Australia received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis following an attack by three foxes or fruit bats while she was on her balcony.

Bhutan

In 2011 it has been reported that five people have died from rabies in Bhutan. Dogs accounted for 39% of the cases, while the main transmitters of rabies in Bhutan are cattle 55%

Bolivia

Bolivia had reported at 60% increase in cases of canine rabies in 2011. There have been 208 confirmed cases of canine rabies with three human deaths reported in 2011.

China

In Shanghai  it has  been reported I that during 2011 there has been an increase of dog attacks on residents.40,000 people have been bitten by a pet, a 40% increase from 2010. In 2010 there was 1 case of rabies, this year 6 cases have been reported. Beijing reported six human deaths from rabies in the first six months of the year and in Chongqing in Southern China there were a total of 38 deaths from rabies in the first half of the year.

Ecuador

A total of nine human deaths from rabies were reported by the ministry of Health of Ecuador on 28 Nov 2011. An on-going mass vaccination programme is being conducted in the affected communities in canton Taisha, Morona-Santiago.

India

In Chennai at least 20 people have died of rabies in the first half of 2011. General hospitals in Tamil Nadu reported 12 deaths due to rabies in 2010. In Visakhapatnam, sea port on the south east coast of India a rabies death was reported in July 2011 and a boy died in the Khammam district. also in July 2011.

Indonesia

The rabies epidemic continues in Bali, as of June 2011, over 100 deaths caused by rabies have been reported. In Borneo at least 858 rabies cases have been reported, including one death. In east Nusa Tenggara a total of 800 dog bites have been reported this year.  An on-going shortage of rabies vaccine has been reported in Kab Sikka regency and in other areas of the province.

Kazakhstan

In July 2011 a 10-year-old boy was hospitalized in the KyzylordaOblast with suspected rabies.

Pakistan

Rawalpindi city has reported an increase of dog attacks on residents.  Every month more than 100 dog-bite cases are being with the number continuously on the rise.

Peru

In 2011 a total of 20 human rabies cases have been reported so far. Of the 20 deaths 19 were in natives of the Amazonas region who were bitten by bats. In a remote village in the Atalaya province a rabid cattle had to be slaughtered and a total of 87 people consumed the infected meat in November 2011. All persons involved received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.

Russia

In the first nine months of 2011 in Russia ten people contracted rabies, of which three cases were reported in the Tverskaya province. In 2010 there were 17 cases of human rabies in the Russian Federation.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Norway)

Three reindeer were reported to have tested positive for rabies on 27 Sept 2011.

Ukraine

Ukraine has reported 5 cases of human rabies in 2011. 100,000 – 120,000 people seek medical treatment for animal bites every year in the Ukraine.

USA

There have been reports of rabies cases in racoons in Florida in 2011 and in Texas they are reporting a rise in the cases of animal rabies with 591 reported in the first six months of the year. In Jul 2011, a 73-year-old woman tested positive for rabies. She was bitten by a dog in her native Haiti in Apr 2011. Animal rabies was also reported in Illinois and New York.

Vietnam

In June 2011 an outbreak of rabies amongst domestic dogs in the Si Ma Cai District of northern Lao Cai Province was reported.

 Zambia

In October 2011 an outbreak of rabies was reported in Mansa district with 14 cases. One human death was reported in Mwang’uni , the person had become infected after being bitten by a dog.

Advice for Traveller’s

If you are travelling to country where rabies is present for 4 weeks or more, or if you are likely to be more than 24 hours away from a reliable source of vaccine and treatment, then you should consider having a course of rabies vaccines pre travel. Many countries do not have a supply of rabies immunoglobulin, the treatment you need if you have not had any rabies vaccines, so you should consider having the vaccine before you go.

To book a rabies vaccine please call 01273 749100 or book ONLINE

References

1. www.nathnag.org

Sussex Travel Clinic would like to wish all of our customers a very Happy Christmas

Our opening hours over the feastive period are as follows:

Saturday 24th December – Closed
Sunday 25th December-  Closed

Monday 26th December – Closed
Tuesday 27th December – Closed
Wednesday 28th December – 09.00-17.00
Thursday 29th December- 15.00 – 19.00
Friday 30th December- 9.00- 13.00
Saturday 31st December – Closed
Sunday 1st January – Closed

Monday 2nd January -Closed
Tuesday 3rd January – 09.00-13.00
Wednesday 4th January 09.00 – 13.00
Open as normal thereafter

To book please call 01273 749100 or use our ONLINE BOOKING SYSTEM

World AIDS Day is held every year on 1 December. It is held to highlight the fight against HIV and a chance for people to show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate people who have died. The first World AIDS Day was held in 1988 and was the first ever global health day.

In the UK there are currently more than  90,000 people living with HIV. Globally an estimated 33.3 million people have HIV. Between 1981 and 2007  more than 25 million people have died from the Aids virus , making it one of the most destructive pandemics in history.

HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The HIV virus attacks the body’s immune system — the body’s defence against diseases. HIV is passed on though infected bodily fluids, most commonly it is spread via sex without a condom or by sharing infected needles, syringes or other injecting drug equipment

HIV rates abroad are higher than in the UK. In sub-Saharan Africa HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with 33.2 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2007 [1].

Advice for Traveller’s

  • Always practice safe sex.
  • Carry an adequate supply of condoms on your trip.
  • Make sure condoms are in date and carry the  BSI or CE kite-mark.
  • Avoid risky behaviour e.g. unprotected sex, tattoos, piercings, visiting traditional barbers in high risk destinations.
  • Carry a Sterile Medical Kit that contains needles and syringes in case you need medical treatment in a remote area.
  • Dental and surgical procedures should also be avoided in high risk areas.

 

World Aids Day 2011To pledge your support for World Aids Day click here

Sussex Travel Clinic is part of the C- Card Scheme and can supply free condoms to anyone aged 13 – 25 – just pop into clinic to collect your free pack and card.

Sussex Travel Clinic offers HIV testing for Visa and Employment purposes – please call 01273 749100.

 References

1. www.nathnac.org

 

 

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